A very fine cold painted bronze study of a leaping trout with excellent naturalistic colour and very fine hand finished detail, raised on a green Brazilian onyx base and signed with the Bergman ‘B’ in an amphora vase.
Trout – Interesting Facts
Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.
Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do trout (Oncorhynchus – Pacific salmon and trout, Salmo – Atlantic salmon and various trout, Salvelinus – char and trout).
Most trout live in cold, freshwater lakes and/or rivers exclusively, while there are others such as the Rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss), which may either live out their lives in fresh water, or spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn; a habit more typical of salmon. A Rainbow trout that spends time in the ocean is called a Steelhead.
Trout that live in different environments can have dramatically different colourations and patterns. Mostly, these colours and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, and will change as the fish moves to different habitats. The fish in, or newly returned from the sea, can look very silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake, could have pronounced markings and more vivid colouration. It is also possible that in some species this signifies that they are ready to mate. In general, trout that are about to breed have extremely intense colouration. They can look like an entirely different fish outside of spawning season. It is virtually impossible to define a particular colour pattern as belonging to a specific breed; however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have more vivid colours and patterns.
As a group, trout are somewhat bony, but the flesh is generally considered to be tasty. The flavour of the flesh is heavily influenced by the diet of the fish. For example, those that have been feeding on crustaceans tend to be more flavourful than those feeding primarily on insect life. According to the British Nutrition Foundation, trout contain one of the lowest amounts of dioxins (a type of environmental contaminant) of all oily fishes.
The species can live for approximately seven years. Most are born, mature, lay eggs and die in lakes or streams. Some, however, become very large migratory fish and can travel more in their seven years than some people do in a lifetime! In this way, they are similar to their salmon relatives. In fact, they may migrate from their lake or stream to the ocean and back three or four times.
At two years old, trout are ready to reproduce. Their colours change by getting brighter, and they find mates. Some species mate in the autumn, others in the spring. A female lays her eggs which are then fertilized by a male in a redd (nest), built in the gravels of a freshwater lake or stream. Baby trout (alevins) hatch before they are ready to swim, so live on the yolk from their egg sacs.
Young trout (troutlet, troutling, fingerling or fry) use up the food in their egg sacs and swim around in the lake or stream where they were born. They now have to find their own food, mostly tiny organisms called zooplankton. Over the next few years, fry grow by eating mostly insects and worms; where they develop their spots, stripes and brilliant colours of an adult.
Many trout live in just a short stretch of stream and need just a few basics to survive: cold/clean water, food, places to hide from predators and clean gravel to lay their eggs in. All the land around a stream that drains into it, is known as the stream’s watershed. They are affected by what happens in their whole watershed; therefore something that happens on the land can change, have an impact or compromise their stream habitat.
Fish can see, hear, smell and feel but none of their senses are quite as a humans. A trout has a well-developed sense of smell by using special holes known as ‘nares’ to sniff out tiny bits of chemicals in the water. As they don’t breathe air, they can’t smell anything outside of their watery habitat. Fish can use their sense of smell to find their way back home to where they were born, because they remember exactly what their home streams smell like!
Trout have broad angle vision, so they can see very well when they look up, but vision is blurred if looking from side to side. This explains why they are so good at dodging predators, such as birds, that come from above! However, a trout can look and focus out of both corners of each eye simultaneously meaning that it can see in almost every direction at once. They also have inner ears, allowing them to hear just as a human would and two lateral lines, one on either side of the body; special sense organs used to ‘feel’ sounds. Lateral lines allow them to hear sounds too low for human ears. They also use lateral lines to find food, escape predators and keep away from obstacles.
For a further selection of sculptures by this artist click on Franz Bergman Sculptures
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