An excellent early 20th Century mould blown soufflé cameo glass vase decorated with vibrant red Chrysanthemum flowers against a warm yellow field, exhibiting excellent colour and detail, signed Gallé.
Chrysanthemums , sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and north eastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. There are countless horticultural varieties and cultivars.
Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous perennial plants or subshrubs. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The compound inflorescence is an array of several flower heads, or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries. The simple row of ray florets are white, yellow or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colours. The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow. The fruit is a ribbed achene. Chrysanthemums, are one of the prettiest varieties of perennials that start blooming early in the fall. This is also known as favourite flower for the month of November.
Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by the year 1630. The plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen in Chinese and East Asian art. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival. The flower may have been brought to Japan in the eighth century AD, and the Emperor adopted the flower as his official seal. The “Festival of Happiness” in Japan celebrates the flower.
Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens imported a cultivated variety known as ‘Dark Purple’ from England. The introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey.
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